After the East India Company won the Battle of Plassey, it got the diwani rights, the organization felt that it required a uniform and effective framework for collecting revenue and administering justice.
Warren Hastings had an enormous impact in the fight and dazzled Robert Clive, the main Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William in Bengal, who demanded he become the British Resident at Murshidabad, the capital of Bengal, in 1758. After rapidly ascending the positions, in 1771, he was designated the Governor of Calcutta. Before long, he proceeded with his first reformation plan, known as the Judicial Plan of 1772.
Judicial Plan of 1772
The Committee of Circuit arranged the principal legal arrangement under the chairmanship of Hastings. In this plan, the three territories of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa were isolated into locale. Each area was put under the immediate control of an authority, which was liable for the assortment of income. The authority additionally had legal forces. The area was the focal authoritative unit of the plan.
It additionally comprised of thirty seven guidelines managing both common and criminal laws. They were made as per the overarching framework and culture of individuals of the subcontinent. The primary thought was to hold, however much as could be expected, the local code of laws and magistracy of individuals.
Courts of original jurisdiction
The area under the company, outside the presidency limits of Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay, came to be known as mofussil. The following classes of courts of law were established for the mofussil districts:
The territory under the organization, outside the presidency limits of Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay, came to be known as mofussil. The accompanying classes of official courtrooms were set up for the mofussil regions:
Mofussil Faujdari Adalat: This was the court of criminal ward set up in each locale. The authority was liable for the overall management and guaranteeing that equity was regulated. The court was directed by a qazi (judge) and a mufti (legal adviser enabled to give decisions on strict matters), and helped by two maulvis (master in law, normally Islamic law), who explained the law. The court had the ability to choose and penalize every criminal case.
Mofussil Diwani Adalat: This was the court of civil jurisdiction set up in each locale. The court was presided by the authority. In suits in regards to marriage, caste, inheritance and other religious use, the court was needed to apply “the laws of the Quran concerning the Mohammedans, and those of the Shastras as for the Hindus. The decisions of the court up to the monetary worth of 500 rupees were conclusive.
Small Cause Adalat: This was the civil court set up to manage unimportant cases, and settle disputes up to the worth of ten rupees. In each region, the head farmer was allocated the obligation equity adjudication in this court.
Sadar Nizamat Adalat: This was the criminal court of appeals presided by the Daroga – I-Adalat, he was helped by the chief qazi, chief mufti, and three maulvis. All capital cases came straightforwardly to this court. A significant function of this adalat was of approving death sentences and property relinquishments. The Supreme Council of Bengal practiced general management over this court.
Sadar Diwani Adalat: This court hears appeals from the Mofussil Diwani Adalat of cases esteemed over Rs. 500. It was made out of the Governor and the Supreme Council. It used to charge five percent of the dispute amount on each petition or an appeal.
Judicial plan of 1774
The institution of collector was annulled in 1773 on the counsel of the court of heads of the organization in England. This required new changes, which Hastings introduced through another legal plan, carried out in 1774.
According to the legal arrangement of 1774, the collectors were reviewed from the areas. In their place, an Indian official, who was called diwan or amil, was delegated. He was to perform as judge of the Mofussil Diwani Adalat and gathered the land income.
The entire mofussil territory in Bihar, Orissa and Bengal was partitioned into six divisions, settled at Murshidabad, Calcutta, Dinajpur, Burdwan, Dacca and Patna. Every division had a common place gathering comprising of four of five British government employees of the organization.
Judicial plan of 1780
After the foundation of the councils of province, it was at last understood that they didn’t work as expected. The members of councils had income and other executive work, which was a higher priority than their legal work. The members of councils didn’t really like their legal work, the vast majority of which was left to be finished by the law officials.
Thus, the law officials were left with close total caution to choose court matters according to their desires; this prompted a ton of corruption. At the point when Hastings came to think about these imperfections, he endeavored to eliminate them with the new legal arrangement of 1780.